Fish seems to associated with less depression in BOYS NOT girls. Strange. Maybe this is why I crave sushi Fish and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study -- Murakami et al. 126 (3): e623 -- PediatricsClipped from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/126/3/e623
PEDIATRICS Vol. 126 No. 3 September 2010, pp. e623-e630 (doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3277)
Fish and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health StudyKentaro Murakami, PhDa,Yoshihiro Miyake, MD, PhDb,Satoshi Sasaki, MD, PhDa,Keiko Tanaka, DDS, PhDb, Masashi Arakawa, PhDc
a Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan;
b Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; and
c Field Science for Health and Recreation, Faculty of Tourism Sciences and Industrial Management, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence on the role of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on depression during adolescence is sparse.
OBJECTIVE We examined the association between fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and depressivesymptoms in a group of adolescents.
SUBJECTS AND METHOD This cross-sectional study, conducted in all public junior high schools in Naha City and Nago City, Okinawa, Japan, included 3067 boys and 3450 girls aged 12 to 15 years (52.3% of the eligible sample). Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated, self-administered diet-history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when participants had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score of 16.
RESULTS The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.97]; P for trend = .04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54–0.94]; P = .04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59–1.05]; P = .11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55–0.96]; P = .08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls.
CONCLUSIONS Higher intake of fish, EPA, and DHA was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in early male, but not female, adolescents.
Key Words: fish • eicosapentaenoic acid • docosahexaenoic acid • depressive symptoms • adolescence
Abbreviations: PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid • EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid • DHA = docosahexaenoic acid • RYUCHS = Ryukyus Child Health Study • BDHQ = brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire • CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression • OR = odds ratio • CI = confidence interval
Accepted May 18, 2010.
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